The first step for Python 3 is to install Apple’s Xcode program which is necessary for iOS development as well as most programming tasks. We will use XCode to install Homebrew. In your Terminal app, run the following command to install XCode and its command-line tools: $. Since IQ-TREE is a command-line program, clicking on iqtree.exe will not work. You have to open a Command Prompt for all analyses: Click on “Start” menu (below left corner of Windows screen). Type in “cmd” and press “Enter”. It will open the Command Prompt window (see Figure below).
These advanced steps are primarily for system administrators and others who are familiar with the command line. You don't need a bootable installer to upgrade macOS or reinstall macOS, but it can be useful when you want to install on multiple computers without downloading the installer each time.
Find the appropriate download link in the upgrade instructions for each macOS version:
macOS Catalina, macOS Mojave, ormacOS High Sierra
Installers for each of these macOS versions download directly to your Applications folder as an app named Install macOS Catalina, Install macOS Mojave, or Install macOS High Sierra. If the installer opens after downloading, quit it without continuing installation. Important: To get the correct installer, download from a Mac that is using macOS Sierra 10.12.5 or later, or El Capitan 10.11.6. Enterprise administrators, please download from Apple, not a locally hosted software-update server.
OS X El Capitan
El Capitan downloads as a disk image. On a Mac that is compatible with El Capitan, open the disk image and run the installer within, named InstallMacOSX.pkg. It installs an app named Install OS X El Capitan into your Applications folder. You will create the bootable installer from this app, not from the disk image or .pkg installer.
Use the 'createinstallmedia' command in Terminal
- Connect the USB flash drive or other volume that you're using for the bootable installer. Make sure that it has at least 12GB of available storage and is formatted as Mac OS Extended.
- Open Terminal, which is in the Utilities folder of your Applications folder.
- Type or paste one of the following commands in Terminal. These assume that the installer is still in your Applications folder, and MyVolume is the name of the USB flash drive or other volume you're using. If it has a different name, replace
MyVolumein these commands with the name of your volume.
- Press Return after typing the command.
- When prompted, type your administrator password and press Return again. Terminal doesn't show any characters as you type your password.
- When prompted, type
Yto confirm that you want to erase the volume, then press Return. Terminal shows the progress as the bootable installer is created.
- When Terminal says that it's done, the volume will have the same name as the installer you downloaded, such as Install macOS Catalina. You can now quit Terminal and eject the volume.
* If your Mac is using macOS Sierra or earlier, include the
--applicationpath argument, similar to the way this argument is used in the command for El Capitan.
Use the bootable installer
After creating the bootable installer, follow these steps to use it:
- Plug the bootable installer into a compatible Mac.
- Use Startup Manager or Startup Disk preferences to select the bootable installer as the startup disk, then start up from it. Your Mac will start up to macOS Recovery.
Learn about selecting a startup disk, including what to do if your Mac doesn't start up from it.
- Choose your language, if prompted.
- A bootable installer doesn't download macOS from the Internet, but it does require the Internet to get information specific to your Mac model, such as firmware updates. If you need to connect to a Wi-Fi network, use the Wi-Fi menu in the menu bar.
- Select Install macOS (or Install OS X) from the Utilities window, then click Continue and follow the onscreen instructions.
For more information about the
createinstallmedia command and the arguments that you can use with it, make sure that the macOS installer is in your Applications folder, then enter this path in Terminal:
Nmap and Zenmap (the graphical front end) are available inseveral versions and formats. Recent source releases and binarypackages are described below. Older version (and sometimes newer testreleases) are available from the dist directory(and really old ones are in dist-old).For the moresecurity-paranoid (smart) users, GPG detached signatures and SHA-1hashes for each release are available in the sigsdirectory (verification instructions). Before downloading, be sure to read the relevant sections for your platform from the Nmap Install Guide. The mostimportant changes (features, bugfixes, etc) in each Nmap version aredescribed in the Changelog. Using Nmap is covered in the Reference Guide, and don't forget to readthe other available documentation, particularly the new book Nmap Network Scanning!
Nmap users are encouraged to subscribe to the Nmap-hackersmailing list. It is a low volume (7 posts in 2015), moderated listfor the most important announcements about Nmap, Insecure.org, andrelated projects. You can join the 128,953 current subscribers (as ofSeptember 2017) by submitting your email address here:
You can also get updates from our Facebook and Twitter pages.
Nmap is distributed with source code under custom license terms similar to (and derived from) the GNUGeneral Public License, as noted in the copyright page.
Microsoft Windows binaries
Please readthe Windows section of theInstall Guide for limitations and installation instructions for theWindows version of Nmap. You can choosefrom a self-installer (includes dependencies and also the Zenmap GUI)or the much smaller command-line zip file version. We support Nmap on Windows 7 and newer, as well as Windows Server 2008 and newer. We also maintain a guide for userswho must run Nmap on earlier Windows releases..
The Nmap executable Windows installer can handle Npcapinstallation, registry performance tweaks, and decompressing theexecutables and data files into your preferred location. It also includes the Zenmap graphical frontend. Skip all thecomplexity of the Windows zip files with a self-installer:
Latest stable release self-installer: nmap-7.91-setup.exe
We have written post-install usageinstructions. Please notify usif you encounter any problems or have suggestions for theinstaller.
For those who prefer the command-line zip files (Installation Instructions; UsageInstructions), they are still available. The Zenmap graphicalinterface is not included with these, so you need to runnmap.exe from a DOS/command window. Oryou can download and install a superior command shell such as thoseincluded with the free Cygwin system.Also, you need to run the Npcapand Microsoft Visual C++ 2013 Redistributable Packageinstallers which are included in the zip file. The main advantage is that these zip files are a fraction of the size of the executable installer:
Latest stable command-line zipfile:nmap-7.91-win32.zip
Linux RPM Source and Binaries
Many popular Linux distributions (Redhat, Mandrake, Suse, etc) usethe RPM package management system forquick and easy binary package installation. We havewritten a detailed guide toinstalling our RPM packages, though these simple commands usually dothe trick:You can also download and install the RPMs yourself:
Latest stable release:
x86-64 (64-bit Linux)Nmap RPM: nmap-7.91-1.x86_64.rpm
x86-64 (64-bit Linux)Ncat RPM: ncat-7.91-1.x86_64.rpm
x86-64 (64-bit Linux)Nping RPM: nping-0.7.91-1.x86_64.rpm
Optional Zenmap GUI (all platforms): zenmap-7.91-1.noarch.rpm
Source RPM (includes Nmap, Zenmap, Ncat, and Nping): nmap-7.91-1.src.rpm
Mac OS X Binaries
Nmap binaries for Mac OS X (Intel x86) are distributed as a disk image filecontaining an installer. The installer allows installing Nmap, Zenmap,Ncat, and Ndiff. The programs have been tested on Intel computersrunning Mac OS X 10.8 and later. See theMac OS X Nmap installpage for more details. Users of PowerPC (PPC) Mac machines, which Apple ceased selling in 2006, should see this page instead for support information.
Latest stable release installer: nmap-7.91.dmg
Source Code Distribution
This is the traditional compile-it-yourself format. The Nmaptarball compiles under Linux, Mac OS X, Windows, and many UNIXplatforms (Solaris, Free/Net/OpenBSD, etc.) It includes Zenmap, theGUI frontend.
Detailed Linux/BSD/Solaris compilation instructions and options are provided here, though this usually does the trick:
Most Windows users install with our Windows executable installer, but we also provide Windows source code compilation instructions.
Most Mac OS X users install with our Mac installer, but we also provide Mac OS X source code compilation instructions.
If you are compiling Nmap anyway, you might prefer to get the very latest code from our SVN source code repository rather than downloading a tarball here.
Latest stable Nmap release tarball: nmap-7.91.tar.bz2 (or gzip compressed)
Other Operating Systems
Many other operating systems support Nmap so well that I have no needto create and distribute binary packages myself. You can choose touse the packages below, or compile the sourcedistribution, which is often newer. We have created installation pages for the following platforms:
Linux (all distributions)
Mac OS X
FreeBSD, OpenBSD, and NetBSD
Amiga, HP-UX, and Other Platforms
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